10 Basic Accounting Principles & Key Assumptions 2019 GAAP Guide

accounting concepts and principles

These principles are developed over time to bring consistency and uniformity to the accounting process. This principle mentions that all accounting principles and traditions should be functional steadily from one period to the other.

  • The money measurement concept says that a business should record only those transactions which can be expressed in monetary terms.
  • Now, the firm may charge ₹10,000 for 10 years from the profit and loss account.
  • Pricing will vary based on various factors, including, but not limited to, the customer’s location, package chosen, added features and equipment, the purchaser’s credit score, etc.
  • This concept is called the separate entity concept because the business is considered an entity separate and apart from its owner.
  • General acceptance among the members of the accounting profession is the criterion for determining an accounting principle.
  • Besides, for practical reasons also, the accountants of an organization prefer to report the actual costs to its market values.

In the case of rules-based methods like GAAP, complex rules can cause unnecessary complications in the preparation of financial statements. These critics claim having strict rules means that companies must spend an unfair amount of their resources to comply with industry standards. As you learned in Role of Accounting in Society, US-based companies will apply US GAAP as created by the FASB, and most international companies will apply IFRS as created by the International Accounting Standards Board . As fundamental accounting illustrated in this chapter, the starting point for either FASB or IASB in creating accounting standards, or principles, is the conceptual framework. Both FASB and IASB cover the same topics in their frameworks, and the two frameworks are similar. The conceptual framework helps in the standard-setting process by creating the foundation on which those standards should be based. It can also help companies figure out how to record transactions for which there may not currently be an applicable standard.

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

No comparison would be meaningful, or indeed possible, unless all the accounting statements have been prepared on the basis of the same agreed principles and assumptions. Under the matching principle, each item of revenue should match an item of expense.

accounting concepts and principles

Of course, the accountant or auditor is free to come to a different conclusion if there’s evidence that the business can’t pay back its loan or meet other obligations. In that case, the company might need to start considering the liquidation value of assets. Every accountant would practice accounting on their https://www.bookstime.com/ own terms and conditions, making it impossible for people attached to the company’s affairs to understand them. For example, one of the most common assumptions is that money has a stable value. We all know that this is not really correct because inflation continuously erodes the value of monetary units.


Conversely, this principle tends to encourage the recordation of losses earlier, rather than later. This concept can be taken too far, where a business persistently misstates its results to be worse than is realistically the case. Prudence involves allowing for some caution in preparing financial statements, by making reasonable and sensible allowances in order to avoid overstating assets or income and to avoid understating expenses or liabilities. Financial statements must sometimes recognize the uncertainty in business transactions. For example, if a business is owed Rs. 1,000,000 by a number of its customers, there will be some uncertainty as to whether all the money will actually be collected.

  • The landscaping company will recognize revenue immediately, given that they provided the customer with the gardening equipment , even though the customer has not yet paid cash for the product.
  • Accounting policies are the specific principles and procedures implemented by a company’s management that are used to prepare financial statements.
  • Another important argument in favor of the basic accounting concepts is for company cohesion.
  • This means that financial statements are prepared on the assumption that the entity will continue to operate for the foreseeable future, and does not intend to go into nor will be forced into liquidation.
  • Unless you own a publicly traded company, you should not have to worry about being held to these standards.
  • This means that FASB has only one major legal system and government to consider.

Prescribes that a business may only report activities on financial statements that are specifically related to company operations, not those activities that affect the owner personally. This concept is called the separate entity concept because the business is considered an entity separate and apart from its owner.

The Purpose of Accounting Principles

The company will not realise the amount of revenue until its work on the product is complete. Therefore, the firm will initially record the amount as a liability in the unearned revenue account. Once the product has shipped to the client, it will be transferred to the revenue account. Suppose a company ships its goods amounting to ₹10,000 to its customer on the credit of 30 days.

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